Daily Instruction: Integrated Literacy Model

“Writing is often recommended as a tool for improving reading. In Reading Next (Biancarosa and Snow, 2004), intensive writing was identified as a critical element of an effective adolescent literacy program. Reading Next stated that writing instruction improves reading comprehension and that the teaching of writing skills such as grammar and spelling reinforces reading skills. It is also believed that writing about a text improves comprehension, as it helps students make connections between what they read, know, understand, and think (Carr, 2002).”

--Writing to Read

The Teacher’s Role

What it Looks Like


Continuum of Literacy Learning Components

Have students write about and discuss the texts they read

  • Respond to a text in writing (writing personal reactions, analyzing and interpreting the text)
  • Write summaries of a text
  • Write notes about a text
  • Answer questions about a text in writing, or create and answer written questions about a text
  • Develop a claim based on evidence.
  • Use evidence from texts to support analysis, reflection, and research
  • Make predictions on an ongoing basis throughout the reading
  • Identify and discuss the problem, the events of a story, and/or the resolution
  • Structured note taking involves creating a written organizational structure for material read. With one approach, students are taught how to create an organizer resembling a flow chart, depicting changes in the events of a story over time.
  • Answering questions in writing involves writing responses to questions inserted
  • Create a claim and counterclaim based on relevant data and evidence
  • Respond to a Document Based Question (DBQ)
  • Participate in a Socratic Seminar
  • Write a Historical Paper based on History Fair requirements
  • Writing About Reading
  • Writing
  • Interactive Read-Aloud and Literature Discussion

Teach students the writing skills, processes, language, and vocabulary that go into creating texts

  • Teach the process of writing, text structures for writing, paragraph/sentence construction skills (improves reading comprehension)
  • Teach sentence construction skills in context (improves reading fluency)
  • Teach spelling skills in context (improves word reading skills)
  • Teach how to write an information text that includes the narration of history
  • Teach students to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and reliance on one source using proper citation methods.
  • Recognize and use words as metaphors and similes to make comparisons
  • Recognize and use metaphors that have become traditional sayings in which the comparisons are not evident
  • Write an explanation of a historical event using details from evidence, domain specific vocabulary, facts and/or quotes
  • Respond to s DBQ
  • Writing
  • Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study

Increase how much students read, write, and present both independently and in group settings (small and whole)

  • Teach how to do a short or extensive research project
  • Teach multiple genres of prose
  • Teach multiple forms of poetry
  • Conduct opportunities for students to read aloud in small and whole group settings in a variety of text forms
  • Use dramatic expression where appropriate to communicate additional meaning for a text
  • Use voice to convey satirical or ironical meaning of words
  • Have students provide specific examples and evidence (either orally or in writing) to support written statements about the quality, accuracy, or craft of a text
  • Conduct short or extensive research project (History Fair, research papers in Social Studies classes
  • Facilitate Socratic Seminars on a variety of text pieces
  • Students participate in dramatic interpretations of texts, both prose and poetic
  • Writing About Reading
  • Writing
  • Interactive Read-Aloud and Literature Discussion
  • Shared and Performance Reading
  • Guided Reading

Provide regular opportunities for students to complete integrated reading, writing, speaking, and listening activities

  • Teach how to create arguments based on social studies content
  • Utilize technology and teach students how to use technology to produce and/or publish writing
  • Use primary and secondary sources as well as other informational text to write an argument
  • Create a writing product using technology
  • Students present original works of writing to an audience via an oral presentation and the use of technological presentation tools
  • Students prepare and participate in classroom debates
  • Writing About Reading
  • Writing
  • Interactive Read-Aloud and Literature Discussion
  • Shared and Performance Reading
  • Guided Reading
  • Oral, Visual, and Technological Communication