Kindergarten - Grade 2

Children enter the primary grades with a range of literacy abilities based on prior experiences, background knowledge, vocabulary and language development, and exposure to printed materials. Effective primary grade level teachers promote the development of children’s listening, speaking, vocabulary, language, reading, and writing skills based on the expectations of the standards. Children should be provided ample opportunities to participate in rich, structured, interactive conversations between the teacher and peers in response to texts that are read aloud. Teachers create a conducive learning environment in which children have access to a variety of materials to read; they use focused instruction, trade books, and games; they adjust the intensity of instruction based on children’s needs; they link reading and writing activities; and they provide opportunities for sustained practice through individual, partner, and group tasks (Burns, Griffin, & Snow, 1999). While the goal for children at this age is to be able to understand and learn from what they read and to express such knowledge clearly through speaking and writing about text, teachers must also ensure that all children have the foundational literacy skills necessary to develop into proficient readers, writers, and speakers. Teachers intentionally plan and implement a variety of instructional experiences to facilitate children in achieving critical developmental milestones and learning goals.

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