Instructional Shifts Classroom Look Fors

The columns below represent common look-for’s in relation (or as it relates to) to the six shifts in literacy for the Language Arts Florida Standards (LAFS). Connections to the Marzano Teaching Framework are noted beneath each item (D=Domain, DQ=Design Question).

Balancing of Literaryand Informational Text

Knowledge in the Disciplines


Staircase of

Writing from


Ensure that textual materials are diverse in both nature and genre. D1.DQ4.23

Increase substantially the amount of literacy nonfiction used in the classroom or throughout a student’s day.

Provide an accessible classroom library that consists of literacy and informational texts in a wide variety of genres for students to engage with independently. D1.DQ6.5

Texts are presented in a multitude of formats: written, spoken, video, and other forms of multimedia. (elementary) D2.45,46

Students understand and apply reading strategies specific to literary text and specific to informational text.

Students deepen their knowledge through more technical and formal reading and writing. D1.DQ3.19

Provide multiple sources/documents for students to utilize. (elementary) D1.DQ4.23

Require students to cite multiple sources in their responses to questions and writing prompts. D1.DQ4.22

Implement reading strategies within their content area class to promote the connection of literacy to the content area.(elementary)

Students come to discussions prepared, having read or studied appropriate material and then explicitly draw on that preparation and other knowledge about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. (elementary, secondary) D1.DQ2.13

Ask text dependent questions from a range of question types that require students to cite strong and thorough textual evidence. (secondary) D1.DQ2.6

Be patient and tolerate silences while students think, and take a “let’s find out” approach, channeling students back to the text for answers.

Engage students in rich and rigorous conversations dependent on common text. (secondary) D1.DQ5.32

Design instruction for whole group, small group, and individual instruction to cultivate student responsibility and independence. (secondary)D1.DQ3.15

Students are asked to form judgments on texts based on deep reading and evidence found within the text itself.

Make close reading and rereading of texts central to instruction, rather than ancillary. D1.DQ3.15

Scaffold instruction to enable all students to experience, but not avoid, the complexity of the text. D2.42

Teacher gives students less to read in order dive deeper into complex text. D1.DQ2.9

Incorporate regular, observable practice with increasingly complex text. D1.DQ2.10

Utilize a variety of methods for determining the complexity of texts: qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, and task considerations.

Provide students with writing activities in which they must draw evidence from texts, support logical inferences, and present clear information and/or claims. (secondary) D1.DQ4.22

Significant attention is devoted to precise details relating to tone, style, ambiguity, structure, and standard vs. non-standard conventions. (secondary)D1.DQ2.6

Student writing activities should change from stating opinions to writing formal academic argument. D1.DQ4.22

Draw evidence from literary and informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources. (secondary) D1.DQ2.12

Focus on general academic words that appear across multiple contexts of informational, technical, and literary texts. D1.DQ3.14

Help students investigate how meaning can be altered by changing key words and why authors choose one word over another. D1.DQ4.21

Students are exposed to and interact with challenging language throughout the class to acquire understandings of word meanings.

Students are taught fewer words, but at a deeper and more meaningful level. (elementary) D1.DQ2.9

Academic Vocabulary : Students are taught fewer words, but at a deeper and more meaningful level.